Navel Orange (Citrus X Sinensis ‘Washington’)

Plant: Table of Contents

Navel Orange (Citrus x sinensis ‘Washington’)

Navel orange, scientifically known as Citrus x sinensis ‘Washington,’ is a popular citrus fruit that is cultivated across the world for its sweet, juicy flesh and easy-to-peel skin. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the culture, uses, care requirements, common diseases, and pests, as well as fun facts about this delightful fruit. Whether you are a seasoned gardener or a novice enthusiast, this article aims to provide you with the essential knowledge to successfully grow and maintain navel oranges in your home garden or orchard.

Key Takeaways – Navel Orange (Citrus x sinensis ‘Washington’)

Before we dive into the specifics of navel orange cultivation, let’s take a look at the key takeaways you can expect from this guide:

  • Understanding the cultural significance and uses of navel oranges
  • Learning about the essential care requirements including water, sunlight, fertilizer, soil, pruning, and propagation
  • Exploring the popularity of growing navel oranges in containers
  • Identifying common diseases and pests that affect navel orange trees
  • Gaining valuable tips from botanists for successful navel orange cultivation
  • Discovering fun and intriguing facts about navel oranges

This comprehensive guide will equip you with the knowledge and skills to cultivate healthy navel oranges while reaping delicious and nutritious fruits from your own backyard.

What is a Navel Orange?

Navel orange, Citrus x sinensis ‘Washington,’ belongs to the Rutaceae family and is a hybrid between two citrus species, namely Citrus maxima (pomelo) and Citrus reticulata (mandarin). It is distinguished by the development of a second fruit at the base that protrudes slightly, resembling a human navel—hence the name “navel orange.”

The ‘Washington’ variety of navel orange is among the most well-known and widely cultivated types of navel oranges. It is esteemed for its excellent flavor, seedless nature, and relatively easy-to-peel skin, making it a favorite among many citrus enthusiasts.



Navel oranges are primarily cultivated for their fruit, which is consumed fresh or used to make juices, jams, and marmalades. Their sweet, tangy flavor and vibrant color make them a versatile ingredient in various culinary applications. Additionally, the peels of navel oranges can be used to extract essential oils that are valued in aromatherapy and cosmetic industries.


Navel orange trees require adequate water for healthy growth and fruit production. It is crucial to provide consistent moisture, especially during the flowering and fruit-setting stages. However, overwatering should be avoided to prevent waterlogged soil conditions, which can lead to root rot and other diseases.

The water requirements of navel orange trees can vary based on factors such as soil type, weather conditions, and the tree’s age. Generally, young trees need more frequent and careful watering, while mature trees may require less frequent but deep watering. A well-established watering schedule that accommodates these factors is essential for promoting optimal growth and fruit development.


Navel orange trees thrive in full sunlight, requiring at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight per day. Adequate sunlight is vital for the tree’s overall health, fruit quality, and yield. Insufficient sunlight can result in poor fruit development, decreased vigor, and increased susceptibility to diseases and pests.

When planting navel orange trees, it is important to select a location that receives ample sunlight throughout the day. Providing a favorable sunlight exposure will contribute to the tree’s ability to photosynthesize effectively and produce high-quality fruits.


Proper fertilization is crucial for promoting the healthy growth and fruiting of navel orange trees. A balanced fertilizer with a higher nitrogen content is generally recommended for citrus trees, including navel oranges. The fertilizer application should be timed to ensure that the tree receives essential nutrients during critical growth stages.

It is advisable to conduct a soil test to determine the existing nutrient levels and pH of the soil. Based on the results, a tailored fertilization regimen can be implemented to address any deficiencies and maintain an optimal nutrient balance. Organic fertilizers, such as compost and well-decomposed manure, can also be incorporated to enhance soil fertility and texture.


Navel orange trees thrive in well-draining, fertile soil with a slightly acidic to neutral pH range (pH 6.0-7.5). The ideal soil type for navel oranges is loamy, rich in organic matter, and capable of retaining moisture without becoming waterlogged. Avoiding heavy clay soils and excessively sandy soils is crucial to ensure the proper development of the tree’s root system and overall growth.

When planting navel orange trees, amending the soil with organic matter, such as compost or peat moss, can improve its structure and fertility. Additionally, mulching the soil around the base of the tree with organic materials helps conserve moisture, regulate soil temperature, and suppress weed growth.


Pruning is an essential horticultural practice that contributes to the overall health, structure, and productivity of navel orange trees. Regular pruning helps open up the tree’s canopy, improve air circulation, and facilitate sunlight penetration, which are essential for fruit development and disease prevention.

Pruning navel orange trees should primarily focus on removing dead, damaged, or diseased branches, as well as thinning out excessive growth to maintain an open and balanced canopy. Pruning should be conducted during the tree’s dormant season to minimize stress and ensure rapid recovery.


Navel oranges are commonly propagated through vegetative methods such as budding and grafting to ensure the retention of desirable traits from the parent tree. Budding involves the insertion of a bud from a desired navel orange variety into an incision made on the rootstock, while grafting involves joining a scion from the desired variety onto the rootstock.

Successful propagation requires attention to detail, proper technique, and suitable environmental conditions to ensure the establishment of healthy, vigorous young trees. Once established, the propagated trees can be transplanted into the desired growing locations, where they will mature and produce fruits consistent with the parent variety.

Container Popularity

Navel orange trees are well-suited for container cultivation, making them an appealing choice for gardeners with limited space or those interested in growing citrus indoors. Container-grown navel orange trees offer the flexibility to adjust growing conditions, protect the tree from harsh weather, and manage its size through strategic pruning and root confinement.

Gardeners can enjoy the beauty and fragrance of navel orange blossoms, as well as the satisfaction of nurturing and harvesting fresh fruits in a container gardening setting. Whether grown in terracotta pots, decorative planters, or specialized citrus containers, navel oranges can thrive under the right care and maintenance.

Common Diseases

The cultivation of navel oranges is susceptible to certain diseases that can affect the tree’s health, fruit quality, and overall productivity. Understanding the common diseases and their management strategies is crucial for maintaining healthy navel orange trees.

Disease Diagnosis

  1. Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri): Characterized by the development of yellow lesions on leaves, stems, and fruit, citrus canker is caused by a bacterial pathogen that thrives in warm, humid conditions. Implementing rigorous sanitation practices, using copper-based sprays, and removing infected plant material are essential for managing citrus canker.

  2. Citrus Black Spot (Guignardia citricarpa): This fungal disease causes dark, sunken lesions on fruit, which can lead to premature fruit drop and reduced marketability. To manage citrus black spot, employing cultural practices such as timely pruning, proper sanitation, and applying fungicidal sprays during critical growth stages is crucial.

  3. Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing): Also known as HLB, citrus greening is a devastating bacterial disease transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid. Affected trees exhibit symptoms such as blotchy mottling on leaves, stunted growth, and misshapen, bitter fruits. The management of citrus greening involves the control of vector insects, early detection, and the removal of infected trees to prevent the spread of the disease.

  4. Root Rot (Phytophthora spp.): Root rot pathogens thrive in waterlogged soil conditions, leading to the decay of the tree’s root system and subsequent decline in overall health. Improving soil drainage, avoiding overwatering, and using pathogen-resistant rootstocks are effective strategies for mitigating the impact of root rot on navel oranges.

Common Pests

Navel oranges can also be vulnerable to pests that can jeopardize the tree’s vitality and fruit production if left unmanaged. Identifying and implementing appropriate pest control measures is fundamental for safeguarding navel orange trees from pest infestations.

Botanist’s Tips

To ensure the successful cultivation of navel oranges, it is essential to heed the advice and recommendations of experienced botanists and horticulturists. Their expertise and insights can provide valuable guidance on optimizing growing conditions, addressing challenges, and maximizing the productivity of navel orange trees.

Fun Facts

  • The development of navel oranges is the result of a naturally occurring genetic mutation that causes the formation of the distinctive “navel” at the blossom end of the fruit.
  • Navel oranges are often referred to as “winter” oranges due to their peak season, which typically occurs during the winter months in many regions.
  • The aromatic blossoms of navel orange trees are cherished for their fragrant, sweet scent, often used in perfumery and floral arrangements.

Links to External Resources

Readers interested in delving deeper into the cultivation and care of navel oranges can explore the following external resources:

  1. University of Florida Citrus Extension: Growing Citrus
  2. University of California Integrated Pest Management: Citrus Pests
  3. Citrus Industry: Citrus Diseases
  4. The Citrus Centre: Citrus Propagation
  5. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension: Home Fruit Production – Citrus

Navel oranges, particularly the ‘Washington’ variety, offer an enriching and rewarding experience for individuals passionate about homegrown fruits and horticulture. With proper care, attention to detail, and a bit of love, navel orange trees can thrive and produce an abundance of luscious, flavorful fruits for years to come.

In closing, the cultivation of navel oranges represents a harmonious blend of art and science, where the marvels of nature and human ingenuity converge to create a delightful and fruitful journey for cultivators and nature enthusiasts alike. Whether you are intrigued by the unique biology of citrus trees, the culinary delights of navel oranges, or the aesthetic allure of citrus blossoms, the world of navel orange cultivation offers endless possibilities for discovery and enjoyment.

So, roll up your sleeves, gather your gardening tools, and embark on a mesmerizing journey into the realm of navel oranges—you are sure to be captivated by the charm and bountiful rewards that await you in your citrus endeavors.

Remember, as you nurture your navel orange trees, you are not only tending to the fruits of the earth but also sowing the seeds of joy and wonder in every vibrant, sun-kissed orb that graces your garden.

Happy cultivating!

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Peter Taylors

Expert botanist who loves plants. His expertise spans taxonomy, plant ecology, and ethnobotany. An advocate for plant conservation, he mentors and educates future botanists, leaving a lasting impact on the field.